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Hydropower with reservoirs is the only form of large-scale renewable energy storage in wide commercial use today. Pumped storage hydropower plants (PSP) are designed to lift water to a reservoir at higher elevation when the electricity demand is low or when prices are low, and turbine water to produce electricity when the demand is high and/or prices are high. PSP are often designed with a relative high capacity to operate in turbine or pumping mode only for some hours each. They often use artificial reservoirs with limited capacity of storing water. Environmental impacts of hydropower and pumped storage plants are related to impacts of flooding land to create a reservoir, the barrier effect disturbing the connectivity in the river and impacts on the flow regime and related ecosystem downstream from the dam.
Within the European Commission funded Market4RES project, the consultancy company 3E N.V. assessed empirically the challenges and issues of increasing RES-E penetration for the short-term, medium and long-term electricity markets. This was carried out through a selection of case studies that cover three different market regions with different RES-E penetration levels in the European electricity market with a focus on the Nordel system, Central-Western European system and the Iberian system.
The aim of the IEE-EU project Market4RES is to investigate the potential evolution of the EU electricity Target Model in order to secure the European power system decarbonisation with large amounts of renewables.
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