Smart Infrastructure Salzburg is an intelligent energy system that creates a regionally differentiated balance between production and consumption, leading to the use of a high percentage of volatile renewable energies while preventing network congestion. Making this possible requires intelligent voltage control, as well as a more flexible and energy-efficient consumption structure on the part of companies, buildings, electric vehicles and residential customers. Only as a last resort is the active power of renewable energy generators limited. In implementing these applications, synergies are used across the whole network to reduce costs. The coupling of different energy networks creates more opportunities to balance generation and consumption.
Figure 1: One vision of a smart grid system
The five areas of application that are part of SGMS are color coded in Figure 1 . They represent the starting points from different directions. At their intersections synergies are created, allowing for example different applications in the area of ICT infrastructure to have multiple uses. Along with other overarching topics such as the role of smart metering and the open questions that result, these synergies help make Smart Infrastructure Salzburg a reality. The ensemble is determined to a large extent by the institutional framework in which it is embedded. The areas of application and overarching topics specified in Figure 1 constitute the basis for the outline of this report. The colors that are used correspond with those in Figure 2. For a better understanding of the material, the five areas of application and their contribution to the system as a whole are described briefly:
The development of renewable energies is leading to a high share of decentralized and fluctuating generators who are predominantly feeding into the distribution network. This reversion of unidirectional flows brings about enormous challenges for the infrastructure, which was originally designed mainly to deliver electricity to consumers. The goal of applications in this area is to increase the hosting capacity of the grid through intelligent planning, management, monitoring and voltage control approaches in order to take full advantage of the existing distribution network.
The increasing availability of electromobility creates great potential for increasing energy efficiency and decreasing CO2 emissions in the transport sector. For the electric power system, electric vehicles are on the one hand flexible consumers that could potentially also be used as storage capacity. On the other hand, the simultaneous charging of numerous electric vehicles – as they respond, for example, to pricing signals from the wholesale market – can lead to localized congestions in the electricity network. In this area of application, solutions are needed that ensure the intelligent integration of electromobility into the electric power system and at the same time meet market requirements and use the existing network infrastructure efficiently. The focus, here, is on charging and ICT infrastructure, user interfaces and the development of business models (e.g. incentives for optimized EV charging).
The integration of residential customers
The first and highest order goal in integrating residential customers into the energy system is to maximize energy efficient behavior and therefore the conservation of energy. Demand response technologies offer residential customers the opportunity to play a more active role – in particular in the electric power system – and to contribute to its optimization. Applications in this area extend from feedback on electricity use to the automated cycling on and off of household controllable appliances, for example, with the goal of better synchronizing demand with a supply of renewable or avoiding load peaks in the electricity grid.
The integration of buildings
Buildings are responsible for approximately 40 % of energy demand and CO2 emissions worldwide. The integration of buildings in the smart grids of the future is therefore a decisive factor contributing to the goal of creating a comfortable, intelligent, conservation-oriented and integrated smart infrastructure. The buildings of the future will play a combined role as consumers with intelligent small-scale storage systems and will increasingly produce energy themselves. This can be facilitated through the use of thermal inertia, which makes it possible to shift energy use off peak periods without causing a loss of comfort. When energy use is shifted, we speak of flexible load management or demand response and demand-side management. In buildings, load-shifting potential can be accessed and put to use with the help of building automation systems
Load management in commercial and industrial enterprises
In addition to research in the area of residential customers and buildings, this area of application examines the load shifting potential of commercial and industrial enterprises.
The individual SGMS projects will be classified according to the five areas of application. In order to provide an overview, the following section will offer insight into these areas. The “big picture” shown in Figure 2 comprises all 23 individual projects. The relation of the projects to one another is illustrated through the use of arrows.
Figure 2: The “big picture” of SGMS projects
SGMS was launched with a project bundle that was submitted as part of an application for a grant from the research funding program New Energies 2020. This built on several preceding projects and was complemented by other projects responding to later calls for submissions .
Building on a comprehensive body of research, the collected findings from several pilot projects, such as the Model Region Lungau (ZUQDE and DG Demo Net Validation Project), a block of flats on Rosa-Hoffmann-Straße (HiT Project) and the Smart Grids Model Community of Köstendorf (DG Demo Net Smart Low Voltage Grid ) were combined and implemented in the real world in order to make them concrete, demonstrable and evaluable. In addition to demonstrating technological solutions to real problems, the acceptance and user-friendliness of the system for customers plays a central role.
This article is connected to the following knowledge articles:
 No claim can be made to completeness. The areas of application that are a part of SGMS are listed here. In the context of smart grids there are also other areas of application, such as the integration of storage units etc.
 Later calls for submissions were part of the New Energies 2020 programme as well as the first emmission call