For the implementation of the ICT-based structure, hardware and software were developed. The design and testing of an energy management system (EMS) called BEMI/ energy butler was carried out with specific emphasis. Additionally, Smart Grid-based business models (e.g.business model for storage, market mechanisms for DER) and incentive payment systems were systematically analysed and implemented. Moma’s cellular grid architecture created the foundation to control the energy system’s decentralised complexity deriving from the increasing variety and interconnectedness of the energy system of the future that is to be prone to more disturbances. Moma’s network researches took from nature possible solutions that address the new challenges by creating a secure network architecture that is secure by design.
The energy cells can be considered self-optimizing energy cycles within buildings, city parts, communities, municipalities or regions, which can be constituted regionally and become connected supraregionally in a hierarchical manner, thereby forming an energy organism.
The moma-architecture’s smallest units are buildings, called object cells, which are connected to the distribution grid. The distribution grid cell contains about 200 of these object cells as well as agent structures to support grid- and market-driven processes. The moma field test infrastructure consists of about 300 distribution grid cells which collaboratively form the system cell.
A CORE-platform enables the integration and connects the grid cells to the distribution grid management in the control centre as well as to the transmission grid. The CORE-platform furthermore connects the local market rules at distribution level to the overriding markets via the marketplace of energies on system cell level. The system cell monitors all the partly independent processes in the distribution grid cells, and can send optimizing signals based on market developments (EPEX etc.) and the overall status of the local distribution grid feeders.
The communication in and between the cells is based on IP or on broadband powerline. Throughout the field test’s lifecycle, these forms of connection have proved to be stable and reliable. This type of system architecture additionally enables a security by design approach, as a blackout within one distribution grid cell does not necessarily affect other distribution grid cells anymore, thereby increasing the overall security of supply at distribution level and the overall cell system’s reliability.
The object cell management requires that information and signals based on the current market and grid parameters are sent to the households’ consumption applications.
671 households have tested the new control applications and mechanisms throughout the three phases of the moma field test.
The so called “Energy Butler” developed by MVV and Fraunhofer IWES was considered to be of great importance for the overall project. This in-home energy management system constituted the interface between the overall energy and distribution network management and the other cells, as well as the actual household applications with flexibility potentials and thereby enabled a decisive step in the optimisation process within the moma cellular structure. The energy butler supports the customers in adapting their consumption to the price signals they receive, i.e. demand response.
It can schedule and control household applications and decides independently, when to switch on or off an application based on the parameters entered by the customer. The most important factor in the energy management processes is constituted by the current electricity price.
The energy butler only switches on the applications when the end user financially benefits. The butler can act market- and grid-driven, as the price signals it translates into “switch on” or “switch off” signals, can include information on current prices on the EPEX spot markets, but also represents parameters of the local distribution grid or the availability of locally produced green electricity.
After first pre-trials had already delivered promising results on individual technological components, the large field test was set to take the overall moma infrastructure to the grid. The pre-defined goal was not only to examine the interplay between all moma-components, but also to analyse the field test consumer behaviour in terms of price elasticity. The field test could demonstrate a high acceptance for the dynamic tariff and proved that households react to a price increase of a 100 per cent with an average shift in consumption of about 11 per cent. At certain times of the day, shifts of up to 35% have been measured.
This article is connected to the following knowledge articles:
Communication network Broadband Powerline – PPC
Smart Meter Gateway as foundation for metering data processing and data security – PPC
Energy Management Gateway as bi-directional communication interface for consumption or generation units in the household – MVV Energie, Fraunhofer IWES, PSE
moma App – MVV Energie
Energy Butler (software) – MVV Energie, Fraunhofer IWES, PSE
OGEMA platform – OGEMA alliance, Fraunhofer IWES, MVV Energie
Model City Mannheim (Model Region Rhine-Neckar)
Dr. Robert Thomann, MVV Energie AG
Technologie & Innovation
Luisenring 49, 68159 Mannheim
www.modellstadt-mannheim.de ; www.mvv-energie.de