First of all, the day-ahead closure time was postponed from 12:00PM until 19:00PM in order to assess the impact of improved day-ahead forecasts of non-dispatchable units (such as intermittent generation, load and must-run) on the European system and market. Delaying the day-ahead closure time was assumed to enable commercial players with improved RES and load forecasts, without disturbing downhill activities .
Delaying the day-ahead closure time was found to decrease the required amount of Manual Frequency Restoration Reserve (FRRm) tendered by the TSO, leading to slightly more available capacity for commercial purposes, and, as a result, slightly lower prices and higher social welfare in both winter and summer periods. The effect increased with rising levels of renewable energy integration. When monitoring the intraday and real-time chains in addition to the day-ahead, more accurate forecasts may also lead to less rescheduling (and corresponding transaction costs).
Secondly, the impact of load flexibility was assessed using a model of load shedding as voluntary load shedding above a given price (compared with the reference case, 5% of the load may be shed above 100€/MWh without any later load increase to compensate this shedding ). Increasing load flexibility reduced the need for flexible generation, especially during times of (initially) high demand. Increasing load flexibility did not impact base load generation. Average winter prices went down by approximately 16% (from approximately 150€/MWh to 125€/MWh) for the reference renewable energy integration level. The impact of flexibility on day-ahead prices increased with higher intermittent generation development, due to a larger need for flexible generation. The resulting CO2 emissions decreased as well with higher load flexibility, because flexible generation usually emits much CO2; however, this decrease may be cancelled if the load increases later on to compensate the shedding using polluting generation. The security of supply may also be improved if the flexible load can be called close to real-time; further studies are needed to confirm this aspect.
 The financial and human cost due to more night shifts was not assessed.
 The load shedding without later increase model for load flexibility was also used in a presentation published on the French regulator’s (CRE) website.