1. Rationale of selection
The technology portfolio of power system technologies is defined upon selection criteria that are based on their possible impact on transmission networks with regard to planning issues by 2050. For example, typical transmission technologies solutions include AC interconnections, DC interconnections, hybrid AC/DC interconnections, or Power Electronics to better control flows over long distances.
More specifically the retained selection criteria include the relevance for grid planning at the considered time horizon, the validation that the technology is a contributor to the scenario (as a result of its commercial maturity).
For each technology area, a review of all technologies has been made with the support of technology experts which led to the eHighway2050 technology portfolio.
For generation, storage and transmission area, the technology portfolio has been constructed based upon experts’ views. For demand-side technologies, a specific methodology1 has been proposed on the basis of the criticality2 induced by the future demand-side technology changes, impacting the transmission system at 2050.
The selection and more generally the data gathering process for generation and storage technologies was mainly carried-out by a professional association, partner of the project (Eurelectric with its subcontractor VGB Power Tech) and an academic institution (University of Comillas) for electrochemical storage technologies. A professional association (EWEA, European Wind Energy Association) delivered the data for wind energy. The Institute of Power Engineering (IEN) completed the data sets for generation with specific data related to biomass-fired CHP (combined heat and power) plants. The data gathering process for demand-side technologies (electric vehicles, heat pumps and lighting) was performed by TECHNOFI. For transmission technologies, data was provided by T&D Europe for active transmission technologies (HVDC converters, FACTS, transformers, etc.), Europacable for cables (passive transmission technologies) and a pool of TSOs (RTE and Amprion), partners of the project, for overhead lines (passive transmission technologies).
2. The e-Highway2050 technology portfolio
As a result, the database is organized per technology, listed hereafter:
- generation and storage technologies: hydropower; PV; concentrated solar power; wind power; geothermal; gas turbines; hard coal and lignite with or without CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage); nuclear power; biomass and biogas; pumped-hydro; CAES (Compresssed Air Energy Storage); electrochemical storage;
- demand-side technologies: electric vehicles; heat pumps; lighting (Light Emitting Diodes and Organic LED);
- passive transmission technologies: high voltage (HV)AC and DC cables (AC and DC submarine and AC and DC underground); HVAC and DC overhead lines; high temperature conductors; combination of HVAC/HVDC transmission solutions; gas insulated lines; superconductors;
- active transmission technologies: converters for HVDC (CSC and VSC); FACTS (shunt and series); phase shift transformers and transformers with tap changer; protection and control at substation and at system level.
Figure 1. Technological scope of the e-Highway2050 technology database
3. The technology portfolio and the energy- scenarios
For each scenario at 2050, the technology challenges and thus the technology portfolio are different.
Let us consider as an example the “100% electricity RES” scenario. It is indeed an extreme scenario with 100% RES penetration which presents specific technological challenges mainly in renewable electricity generation, but also in the demand side in energy efficiency, new uses and electricity storage while increased power transmission needs are expected.
Table 1. Key features of the “100% RES electricity” scenario and associated technologies
More generally, for the five considered scenarios an overview in terms of criticality is presented below.
Table 2. Criticality of challenges for the technology area for each e-Highway2050 scenario.
Criticality index can thus be used as a direct filter to get the final technology portfolio from all possible technology options displayed in Figure 1(e.g. filtering out the technologies rated ++ or +).
Assessment of the methodology use and limitations
Such approach could be easily reproduced on different energy scenarios when reassessing the Table 2 on the criticality of technologies per energy scenario. It could be easily reused to any other issues of technology assessment in an uncertain context for which technologies play a crucial role. The prerequisite is the availability of technology roadmap competences via experts from academic or industry.
This article is connected to the complementary knowledge articles:
Deliverable D3.1 eHighway2050
The possible open access release of the database is currently under discussion.