The identification of the system architecture for DSO DISCERN partners (RWE, IBDR, SEPD, UFD, VRD) is performed by analysing the answers to a prepared questionnaire according to each demonstration project’s information. The questionnaire is based on the Smart Grid Architecture Model (SGAM), which is a European model that is spreading among power supply companies and industry to display system features of smart grids. The detailed questionnaire is structured according to the business, function, information, communication and component interoperability layers that form the SGAM. IEC 61968-1 standard for interface architecture is also used to create this survey.
Figure 1 - Smart Grid Architecture Model (SGAM) framework (from [SGCG-SGAM])
With the aim to harmonize the information, the DISCERN DSOs have filled in and delivered information according to the SGAM. The following conclusions can be drawn from the comparison of the results:
This evaluation covers the business functions described in the IEC 61968-1 standard. There are few business functions like Maintenance and construction and Meter reading and Control that are organized separately. And there are other business functions that are not part of the IEC 61968-1 standard but which are also covered. For instance: Life Cycle Management Metering Devices, Meter Data Management and Workforce Management business functions.
The functionalities described in the IEC61968-1 standard are covered by the DSOs at the distribution domain. In addition, some functionality like metering data belongs both to the distribution and customer domains. There are some particularities for each DSO:
In the case of IBDR, Customer Support (CS) and Meter reading and control (MR) business functions are distributed between Customer and Distribution domains. For UFD, Asset Management (AM) sits in Generation, Distribution and DER domains. CS sits in Distribution domain but Trouble Call Management functionality is outsourced.
RWE incorporates Life Cycle Management Metering Devices, Meter Data Management and Workforce Management business functions to the Distribution domain, which are not included in the IEC 61968-1 standard. Some functionalities are to monitor the grid using meters and to automate the troubleshooting and fault analysis. Outsourced services are also incorporated depending on the current work load and required expertise.
There are some components from network calculations in real time like adaptive relay setting, fault current analysis and energy trading analysis that are not implemented by all DSOs, for example UFD, SSE and VRD. The same is observed with load control functionality and dynamic tariff application and power modulation for UFD, SSE and VRD.
Systems from operation and enterprise zones share information regarding Geographic Information System (GIS) , Assets, Network planning, Work Force management, Weather information, lighting data, etc.
Systems within operation zone like Distribution Central Systems and Meter Data Management share information about distribution networks and lines loading, smart meter status, etc. Systems like SCADA/DMS share information about switch status, measurements and alarms, Network Operation and Control message information, Customer Information Systems and Weather Information Systems. Systems from operations and station zones share information regarding control: SCADA and substation status, MV measurements, faults, alerts, etc.
ICCP (TASE2) is being used for communications between operation centres and TCP/IP over Ethernet, fibre optics or GPRS for operational SCADA.
IEC 60870 -5- 101/104 is being used for the communication between operation and station zones, mainly using wireless systems but fibre optics (FO), PLC and Ethernet is also used.
The communication between operation and enterprise zones is carried out by OPC, Common Information Model (CIM), web services and proprietary protocols by means of wireless systems, Ethernet and fibre optics.
Due to confidentiality issues, DSOs cannot disclose information at this detailed level. The following components are used: SCADA, Network Information Systems (NIS), Geographical Information Systems (GIS), Distribution Management System (DMS), Outage Management Systems (OMS), Meter Data Collector (MDC) and Meter Data Management System (MDMS). For main interfaces the following components are being used: smart meters, data collectors for telecontrol, LV/MV sensors and actuators, RTU and servers.
DSOs are focused on MV supervision and LV power quality monitoring. Regarding the component layer, DSOs have obtained conclusions and recommendations from the demonstration projects and there is a list of products and vendors available in the Component layer.
Apart from the SGAM, CIM and IEC 61968-1 standards for interface architecture, there is no clear terminology definition and this creates difficulties to point out similarities and to draw specific conclusions. Therefore, it becomes necessary to use information and definitions produced in DISCERN to avoid vague terminology and unclear concepts.